A precancerous mutation in the cells of uterine cervix is named as Cervical Dysplasia. The abnormal appearance of these cells is named as dysplasia. These cells make the surface of women cervix. There are different stages of Cervical Dysplasia. These are referred as mild cervical dysplasia, moderate cervical dysplasia, and severe cervical dysplasia. These names have been given with respect to the changes in the cells of uterine cervix. These changes in the cells can be seen only through a microscope. This disease affects severely the healthy cells of uterine cervix. These damaged cells are not cancerous, but they may transform into cancerous cells also.
Causes of Cervical Dysplasia
The major cause of this disease is the mutation in the lining of the cells of uterine cervix. The main cause behind the mutation in these cells is a virus. This virus is named as human papilloma virus. This virus is transmitted from one person to another person though sexual interactions. This HPV virus has distinct strains. Some strains of this HPV have low risks while some are really dangerous. In worse cases, HPV strain can also develop into cancer. With age, some infections of this virus keep on worsening instead of resolving. Long duration of this infection also leads to the persistency of this disease.
Symptoms of Cervical Dysplasia :
There are no symptoms of this disease generally. The symptoms of these damaged cells do not appear. After the transformation of these damaged cells into cancerous cells, different symptoms appear. The most common symptom of this disease is regular bleeding.
Signs of Cervical Dysplasia :
The disease shows no signs in initial stages. Some of the signs that are visible when the damaged cells become cancerous include:
- Abnormal and heavy bleeding starts.
- At the end of menstrual cycle, bleeding starts again.
- There is an increase in the amount of vaginal discharge.
- Severe pain during sexual interaction.
- Irregular menstrual cycle
Normally, a pelvic exam is enough for diagnosing the disease. For more confirmation, a pap test is also performed. Any stage of this disease can be identified with Pap test. The test clearly confirms the middle, low, and severe stage of this disease. There are also many other tests that are performed for more confirmation of the disease. Diagnosing this disease is not that easy due to the absence of symptoms. As there are no visible symptoms, therefore; only the Pap test is used to diagnose the disease.
The results of this test are shown in the form of squamous intraepithelial lesion or SIL. This SIL factor helps in finding the amount of damage caused by the disease. This factor has been categorized in different categories. With regular screening, the disease can be diagnosed easily. These SIL categories include:
- Low Grade SIL
- High Grade SIL
- Risks of Cancer
- Irregularities in glandular cells
The main test that is performed for the diagnosis of this disease is Pap test. Other tests are
- Colposcopy :
This is an official procedure. In this test, walls of vagina, vulva, and uterine cervix are illuminated, and a vinegar solution is also used in the test. With the help of illumination, abnormalities are detected in the cells. Colposcope is also a kind of microscope. It is studded with large magnifying lenses. With the use of color filter, it is quite easy to detect damages in the cells.
- Biopsy :
In this test, a sample of tissue is taken, and it is observed under the microscope. This tissue sample is extracted from the damaged part of the bodies. This test is only possible with a tissue sample. The results of this biopsy test are shown in the form of factor CIN.
- CIN I indicates mild stage of this disease
- CIN II indicates moderate cells damage
- CIN III indicates sever stage of this disease.
- HPV Testing
This test is performed to detect the severe stage of this disease. This test is recommended in case of failure of Pap test. Due to short lived HPV infections, screening is not recommended mostly for diagnosing the disease.
There is no need of treatment for low grade Cervical Dysplasia. In this case, a woman is recovered automatically. However, screening is recommended by the doctors. If high grade Cervical Dysplasia is left untreated, it may develop into cancer. Women mostly go for surgical treatments.
This disease can be prevented only through abstention. However, you can also follow some other measure to reduce the risks of this disease. These measures include:
- Always use condom for sex
- Have HPV vaccination
- Do not smoke
- Do not sex until you are 18 years old.
- Do not sex with multiple partners.
- High Level Cervical Dysplasia
- Low Level Cervical Dysplasia
- Mid Level Cervical Dysplasia
Risk Factors :
- Weak immune system
- Having sexual interactions with many partners
- Becoming a mother before the age of 16
- Involving in a sexual relation before you are 18 years old
The disease originates several complications. The most common complication that can originate from the disease is cancer that is life threatening. The disease also becomes a cause of a threat to fertility. It reduces the eggs fertilization. However, the disease has no effects on newborns.
Cervical Dysplasia Home Remedies :
For healing the disease, you should eat food items rich in vitamin A, B, C, and E. Use mineral and nutrients supplements. Avoid the use of drugs as these drugs lead to the deficiency of folic acid. Also take food items that are rich in zinc.
There are a number of different factors upon which the treatment of this disease depends upon. The two important factors are the level of the disease and patient’s age. Women under 20 with a mild level of Cervical Dysplasia only need regular monitoring with pap tests. For aged women with mild level of disease, no treatment is recommended. The most commonly used treatment is cone biopsy.
Some other treatments that are used for treating the disease include:
- Laser Surgery
- Regular Surgical Procedure
- Treatment through freezing the damaged cells
It depends upon the severity of the disease that which of these treatments will be the best for you.