What is Bullous Pemphigoid?
It is a very harsh skin disease. This skin condition causes blisters on the skin of the patient. The large blisters are filled with some kind of liquid. The blisters usually appear on the lower side of the abdomen, and on upper side of the thighs, and on underarms. It mostly affects the elder people. This disease is mainly caused by some kind of disorder in the immune system of our body. The immune system produces the antibodies Pemphigoid. With the time, the patient recovers itself. Medications can be used for preventing the blisters. People with age over 60 are mostly attacked by this disease.
Causes of Bullous Pemphigoid :
The main cause of this skin disease is a kind of unknown disorder in our immune system. Under the outer layer of our skin, there is a thin layer of tissues. In case of this disease, the immune system attacks on these thin tissues. It is still unknown that why our immune system reacts in this way. It has been reported that some kind of medications are responsible for such behavior of immune system. These medications trigger the immune system to attack on the layer of tissue under the outer layer of our skin.
Who is affected with Bullous Pemphigoid?
This skin condition mostly affects the elder people over 60. In rare cases, it can also affect children and adults. The disease affects the men and women equally.
The main symptom of this disease is the appearance of large blisters on our skin. If touched, these blisters do not rupture. The disease usually starts with the appearance of painful rashes on the skin. Initially, the disease looks similar to the skin disease eczema. Then, after a period of few months, large liquid filled blisters appear on these patches. The diameter of these blisters under the surface of our skin can be up to 5 cm. The fluid inside these blisters is clearly visible. There may be some blood in these blisters that can be seen. These sores may also develop in our mouth.
Signs of Bullous Pemphigoid :
Some of the common signs of this disease are:
- Itching skin
- Burning skin
- Harsh Rashes
- Fluid filled blisters
- Peeled away inner tissues
- Thick blisters
- Red skin around blisters
- Feeling problem while eating
- Bleeding from gums
- Sensitivity of stomach to acidic foods
- Mouth burning
- Nose bleeding
- Blood Test
- Skin Biopsy
- A skin specialist can diagnose the disease easily simply by looking at the condition of the skin.
- In some cases, for diagnosing the disease, skin biopsy is performed. The skin biopsy confirms this disease.
- Blood test also helps in diagnosing the disease as with blood test presence of Pemphigoid antibodies is confirmed.
- Immunofluorescence is also used by some skin specialists for the confirmation of Pemphigoid antibodies.
The prognosis of this disease is variable. The symptoms continue to wax and wane. In some cases, no treatment is necessary. The disease remits itself within a period of five years. If it is treated properly, a patient can get rid of it in 1.5 years only. For the proper treatment of the disease, several tests are mandatory.
- Do not rub the blisters on the skin. Liquid from the ruptured blisters spreads to other areas of the skin and causes blistering on other parts also.
- Do not take any medicine without a doctor’s recommendation
- Always use sun block before going outside.
- Avoid crunchy foods if you feel skin burning and itching.
Malfunctioning of immune system causes different types of Bullous Pemphigoid. Different types of Bullous Pemphigoid include:
- Bullous Pemphigoid :
In this type, blisters usually occur on the arms and legs of the patients. Lower abdomen and joints are also affected.
- Cicatricial Pemphigoid :
In this type, blisters appear on different parts of the body, i.e. mouth, eyes, nose, throat, and genitals. Blistering starts from one organ and then it spreads to other parts of the body.
- Pemphigoid Gestationis :
This type of blistering occurs during or after the period of pregnancy. It may occur anytime during the pregnancy. Blisters appear on legs, arms, and on lower abdomen in this type.
Severe complications also originate from this disease. Ruptured blisters can cause sepsis. Sepsis is a severe kind of infection that is life threatening. This infection affects our whole body. This infection is more dangerous for the elder people. The disease can also lead to scarring. Another complication originated from the disease is Immunosuppression and the side effects of Corticosteroid, i.e. high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease.
Home Remedies :
- For controlling blisters on the skin, you can follow the following home strategies.
- Due to these blisters, our skin becomes very thin. If a blister is ruptured, you should cover it properly. Make sure that the cover is sterilized.
- If your skin is affected with Bullous Pemphigoid, you should avoid prolonged sun exposure.
You should not eat hot, and fast foods if there are blisters on your skin. As crunchy food items trigger the disease. Also avoid taking raw fruits and raw vegetables.
You should visit a skin specialist for treatment. The treatment is necessary for healing the blisters and for controlling the formation of new blisters. Powerful medications may be recommended by some specialists, but these medicines have some side effects of severe nature. Patients are advised to take smallest doze of these medications. Following medications are recommended by the specialists for controlling the activities of immune system.
- Corticosteroids :
This drug is used most commonly, and it is available in the form of pills. Steroid creams are also available that are rubbed on the affected areas of the skin. These pills also have severe side effects, i.e. feeble bones, waterfalls, high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes.
- Immunosuppressant :
These drugs are used to suppress the production of CD4 cells of our body that fight against diseases, i.e. azathioprine.
- Anti-inflammatory :
These drugs have anti-inflammatory properties. Mostly, these drugs are used in combination with corticosteroids, i.e. methotrexate.
When to Seek Medical Care?
The disease cannot be cured. Certain medications can be used that control these itchy blisters on the skin. This is also a life threatening disease. So, if you see painful blistering on your skin, you should immediately consult your health care provider.